7. SAMPLE ANSWERS

1. SAMPLE ANSWERS - CLASSICAL POETRY

QUESTION NO. 1

(a) That of hir smylyng .......... cleped Madam Eglentyne.

REFERENCE
(i) Poem: The Prologue to the Canterbury Tales
(ii) Poet: Geoffrey Chaucer
CONTEXT
(i) Occurrence: The Prioress (Lines 119-121/858)
(ii) Content: It is the month of April in circa 1390. A group of twenty-nine pilgrims gathers at a tavern in Southwark called Tabard Inn. The goal of their journey is the shrine of St. Thomas a Becket in Canterbury. The narrator, Chaucer, encounters them there and becomes one of their company. The narrator seeks to describe their 'condition', 'array' and 'degree'. The Host at the Inn proposes the story-telling contest among the pilgrims.
EXPLANATION
     In these lines the poet has described three characteristics of the Prioress; her smile, faith and nick name. The smile of the Prioress is very simple. It is easy to understand, presenting no difficulty. Her smile also makes a pretence of shyness and modesty which intends to be alluring. Thus she is a coquettish woman. Secondly, she has a firm faith in Saint Eloy who was the patron saint of goldsmiths, other metalworkers, and coin collectors. This saint worked for twenty years to convert the pagan population of Flanders to Christianity. Thirdly, she has a romantic name, Madam Eglantine. Eglantine is, in fact, a wild rose native to Eurasia having prickly stem, fragrant leaves, bright pink flowers, and scarlet hips. In Madam Eglantine, Chaucer depicts charm without substance. Thus Chaucer has described the nun in the opposite way to show us, how the nun Prioress had all the characteristics that a nun should not have.

(b) And theron heng .......... Amor Vincit Omnia.

REFERENCE
(i) Poem: The Prologue to the Canterbury Tales
(ii) Poet: Geoffrey Chaucer
CONTEXT
(i) Occurrence: The Prioress (Lines 160-162/858)
(ii) Content: It is the month of April in circa 1390. A group of twenty-nine pilgrims gathers at a tavern in Southwark called Tabard Inn. The goal of their journey is the shrine of St. Thomas a Becket in Canterbury. The narrator, Chaucer, encounters them there and becomes one of their company. The narrator seeks to describe their 'condition', 'array' and 'degree'. The Host at the Inn proposes the story-telling contest among the pilgrims.
EXPLANATION
     In these lines the poet has portrayed the Prioress's gold brooch and its motto. A brooch is a decorative jewelry item designed to be attached to garments by a pin or clasp, often to hold them closed. It is worn at or near the neck. The brooch, the Prioress is wearing, is dominated by the letter "A" which stands for Amor i.e. love. Some critics also assume the the brooch is in the shape of the letter "A". However, the most striking quality of the brooch is the Latin inscription on it: "Amor vincit omnia" which means "Love conquers all." This quote is from "Eclogue X" by Virgil. This Virgilian motto is very ambiguous. If it refers to celestial, heavenly love, then the brooch is an acceptable article to be found on the person of a nun. But it represents earthly love between a man and a woman which is absent in nuns. In short, the brooch is a symbol of the Prioress's unchristian character, her connection to laymen and the peasantry, rather than to any religious vocation.

(c) Therefore he was .......... no cost wolde he spare. 

REFERENCE
(i) Poem: The Prologue to the Canterbury Tales
(ii) Poet: Geoffrey Chaucer
CONTEXT
(i) Occurrence: The Monk (Lines 189-192/858)
(ii) Content: It is the month of April in circa 1390. A group of twenty-nine pilgrims gathers at a tavern in Southwark called Tabard Inn. The goal of their journey is the shrine of St. Thomas a Becket in Canterbury. The narrator, Chaucer, encounters them there and becomes one of their company. The narrator seeks to describe their 'condition', 'array' and 'degree'. The Host at the Inn proposes the story-telling contest among the pilgrims.
EXPLANATION
     In these lines the poet describes the Monk's favourite pastimes; riding horses and hunting hares. A monk is a member of religious community of men typically living under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience. However, Chaucer's Monk is corrupt. He does not follow the rules of the monastery which say that monks should not hunt. This Monk prefers to go hunting. He has many galloping horses and coursing greyhounds. The greyhounds are as fast as birds in flight. They can run at a speed of 64 kilometers per hour. He uses these greyhounds to track his preys. He usually hunts hares which are very innocent animals. This shows the Monk's cruel nature. To ride the horses and hunt the hares was a source of pleasure for him. He would do it whatever the cost. In short, he is a "monk out of his cloister" who is not "worth an oyster".

(d) Full wel biloved .......... wommen of the toun;

REFERENCE
(i) Poem: The Prologue to the Canterbury Tales
(ii) Poet: Geoffrey Chaucer
CONTEXT
(i) Occurrence: The Friar (Lines 215-217/858)
(ii) Content: It is the month of April in circa 1390. A group of twenty-nine pilgrims gathers at a tavern in Southwark called Tabard Inn. The goal of their journey is the shrine of St. Thomas a Becket in Canterbury. The narrator, Chaucer, encounters them there and becomes one of their company. The narrator seeks to describe their 'condition', 'array' and 'degree'. The Host at the Inn proposes the story-telling contest among the pilgrims.
EXPLANATION
     In these lines the poet describes the Friar's intimacy with the franklins of his country and noblewomen of his town. The main duty of a friar is to live among the poor, to beg on their behalf and to give his earning to aid their struggle for livelihood. However,  Chaucer's Friar is corrupt. He has acquaintance with franklins; the landowners of free but not noble birth. Moreover, he has familiarity with the noblewomen of the town because he has the power of confession. He is highly liked by these opulent people. In short, the Friar likes to hang out with wealthy people instead of living the life that St. Francis, the first friar, prescribes, he would spend time with the poor and sick.

QUESTION NO. 7

Irony and Satire in "The Prologue" 
COMING SOON!

QUESTION NO. 9

(a) Of Man's first disobedience, .......... restore us. 

REFERENCE
(i) Poem: Paradise Lost
(ii) Poet: John Milton
CONTEXT
(i) Occurrence: Book I (Lines 1-5/798)
(ii) Content: Satan lies dazed in a lake of fire that is totally dark. Next to him is Beelzebub, Satan's second-in-command. Satan speaks to him and laments their current state. Satan suggests that they should leave the burning lake and find shelter on a distant shore. Beelzebub asks Satan to summon his armies. Satan takes up his armor and calls to his legions to join him on land. He addresses his legions and commits himself to continue his fight against God. With their supernatural powers, the devils construct a massive temple, Pandemonium, for meetings.
EXPLANATION
     In these lines the poet describes Man's first disobedience, his exile from Eden, and his eventual redemption through Jesus Christ. The word "of" is a generative case. It echoes how the events described in the work brought forth the rest of mankind as we know it today. The words "Man's first disobedience" foretell the theme of the poem. In the Western traditions, the very first line or even words of the poem are often used as a sort of a frame; the essence of the work, the main theme and pivot. Thus the Iliad begins with "Anger (menis) of Achilles", the Odyssey with "The ingenious (polu-tropos) man" and Dante's Divine Comedy with "Midway on the road of our life". "Forbidden Tree" is a reference, obviously, to Adam and Eve being tempted by the serpent in the Garden of Eden to eat the forbidden fruit. When they relished the "mortal taste" of this fruit; sin, mortality and woe entered the world, and they were cast out of Paradise. Fortunately, "One greater Man", which is an implicit reference to Jesus, came and saved humanity.
(b) Nine times the space ......... confounded though immortal. 

REFERENCE
(i) Poem: Paradise Lost
(ii) Poet: John Milton
CONTEXT
(i) Occurrence: Book I (Lines 50-53/798)
(ii) Content: Satan lies dazed in a lake of fire that is totally dark. Next to him is Beelzebub, Satan's second-in-command. Satan speaks to him and laments their current state. Satan suggests that they should leave the burning lake and find shelter on a distant shore. Beelzebub asks Satan to summon his armies. Satan takes up his armor and calls to his legions to join him on land. He addresses his legions and commits himself to continue his fight against God. With their supernatural powers, the devils construct a massive temple, Pandemonium, for meetings.
EXPLANATION
     In these lines the poet portrays the scene of the fiery lake of Hell where Satan and his cohorts lay unconscious for nine days. Satan and other rebel angles, after their revolt against God, were cast down from Heaven into Hell. In Hesiod's Theogony, the Titans take a similar fall at the hands of Zeus. Interestingly, though Milton alludes to the fall of the Titans here, he likens their nine-day fall, not to the fall of the rebel angels, but to the time they spend in the flaming lake of Hell after their fall. "Horrid crew" means the dreadful and hideous followers of Satan. The word "horrid" permeates the whole poem; "horrid Vale", "horrid silence", "horrid Kings", "horrid crew" and so forth. Satan and his "horrid crew" lay defeated thoroughly in the flaming waves of the lake of Hell. They lay unconscious, rolling like dismasted hulks. However, they were dammed "immortal". They did not die and remained alive. In short, God Almighty put Satan and other rebel angels into a state of dormancy in the flaming lake of Hell for nine days.
(c) A dungeon horrible, .......... discover sights of woe. 

REFERENCE
(i) Poem: Paradise Lost
(ii) Poet: John Milton
CONTEXT
(i) Occurrence: Book I (Lines 61-64/798)
(ii) Content: Satan lies dazed in a lake of fire that is totally dark. Next to him is Beelzebub, Satan's second-in-command. Satan speaks to him and laments their current state. Satan suggests that they should leave the burning lake and find shelter on a distant shore. Beelzebub asks Satan to summon his armies. Satan takes up his armor and calls to his legions to join him on land. He addresses his legions and commits himself to continue his fight against God. With their supernatural powers, the devils construct a massive temple, Pandemonium, for meetings.
EXPLANATION
     In these lines the poet portrays the traditional topography of Hell. Satan and his cohorts, after their revolt against God, were cast down from Heaven to Hell. They lay unconscious in the fiery lake of Hell for nine day. When consciousness recovered, Satan observes that the region in which they are imprisoned is a horrible, round and fiery dungeon like a great furnace. This simile conjures up the image of the lake of Hell very clear. Satan notices that in Hell there is fire, but no light; it is utter darkness, darkness in extremity, without any remainder, or mixture, or hope of light. It is the blackness of darkness forever. The poet is here using the universal symbolism of light and dark to indicate good and evil. Satan, before his fall, as Lucifer was the brightest of all the angels; as he becomes progressively more evil after his fall, he gradually loses all of his brightness. Satan concludes that these fires would never go and the torture would never end. In short, the Hell described by the poet in these lines is a horrible, fiery and murky region of woe and suffering.
(d) Regions of sorrow, ......... that comes to all. 

REFERENCE
(i) Poem: Paradise Lost
(ii) Poet: John Milton
CONTEXT
(i) Occurrence: Book I (Lines 65-67/798)
(ii) Content: Satan lies dazed in a lake of fire that is totally dark. Next to him is Beelzebub, Satan's second-in-command. Satan speaks to him and laments their current state. Satan suggests that they should leave the burning lake and find shelter on a distant shore. Beelzebub asks Satan to summon his armies. Satan takes up his armor and calls to his legions to join him on land. He addresses his legions and commits himself to continue his fight against God. With their supernatural powers, the devils construct a massive temple, Pandemonium, for meetings.
EXPLANATION
     In these lines the poet describes the utter despondency of Satan in Hell. Satan and his cohorts, after their revolt against God, were cast down from Heaven to Hell. They lay unconscious in the fiery lake of Hell for nine days. When consciousness recovered, Satan observes that the region in which they are imprisoned is a horrible, round and fiery dungeon like a great furnace. It is a region of permanent sorrow, misery and suffering. Not a single ray of sun reaches down here; it has "doleful shades", i.e. its utter darkness evokes only sadness. Moreover, there is never a chance of peace and rest here. Above all, hope which comes to all beings is totally absent. It is because hope comes from God, hope is in God and they have revolted against God. Thus there is never a possibility of release for them from Hell. "Hope never comes" is a deliberate echo of Dante's Inferno 3.9: "All hope abandon, ye who enter in!" In short, the Hell described by the poet in these lines is full of endless sorrow, darkness, restlessness and hopelessness.
QUESTION NO. 12

Milton's Grand Style in "Paradise Lost" 
COMING SOON!

QUESTION NO. 17

(a) Sol through white .......... just at twelve, awake:

REFERENCE
(i) Poem: The Rape of the Lock
(ii) Poet: Alexander Pope
CONTEXT
(i) Occurrence: Canto I
(ii) Content: Belinda arises to prepare for the day's social activities. After an elaborate ritual of dressing and primping, she travels on the Thames River of Hampton Court Palace, where a group of wealthy young societies are gathering for a party. Among them is the Baron, who has already made up his mind to steal a lock of Belinda's hair. At party, the Baron takes up a pair of scissors and cuts off the coveted lock of Belinda's hair. Belinda is furious. She initiates a scuffle between the ladies and the gentlemen to recover the severed curl. The lock is lost in the confusion of this mock battle.
EXPLANATION
     In these lines the poet describes the beauty of Belinda and satirizes the idleness, late rising and fondness for domestic pets of the aristocratic ladies. "Sol" in the very first line is a personification of the sun, and Pope makes him seem almost shy to be peeking into Belinda's window, as if he is afraid to disturb the sleeping Belinda in her London home. And indeed he should be. The very next line uses a metaphor to compare Belinda's own eyes to the sun, in fact, her eyes are more beautiful (they "must eclipse the Day") than he is. He recognizes in Belinda a rival. Belinda is hardly waking up with the dawn, though: these lines tell us that, like the pampered lapdogs owned by the 18th-century upper classes, or the sleepless lovers who don't need to work and so they have the energy to stay awake all night thinking about romance, it's closer to noon. In fact, these lines are the opening of action for this epic.

(b) Know further yet .......... what shapes they please. 

REFERENCE
(i) Poem: The Rape of the Lock
(ii) Poet: Alexander Pope
CONTEXT
(i) Occurrence: Canto I
(ii) Content: Belinda arises to prepare for the day's social activities. After an elaborate ritual of dressing and primping, she travels on the Thames River of Hampton Court Palace, where a group of wealthy young societies are gathering for a party. Among them is the Baron, who has already made up his mind to steal a lock of Belinda's hair. At party, the Baron takes up a pair of scissors and cuts off the coveted lock of Belinda's hair. Belinda is furious. She initiates a scuffle between the ladies and the gentlemen to recover the severed curl. The lock is lost in the confusion of this mock battle.
EXPLANATION
     In these lines the poet describes about the birth and power of sylphs. The poet, through the mouth of a sylph, Ariel, says that there are four kinds of spirits; salamander, nymphs, gnomes and sylphs. These are all the allotropes of dead persons. Those women who were "fair and chaste" and rejected mankind, after their deaths, their souls went to air and they became sylphs. Here "fair and chaste" are very ironical words. These suggest that those women were, in fact, flirt and coquette. They were full of spleen and vanity and their spirits were too full of dark vapours to ascend to the skies. So they became the spirits of the air. Secondly he says that the sylphs are very powerful spirits. They are "freed from mortal laws" Now they have become divine beings and are no more subject to death. Moreover, they can change their sex and shape with ease. Ariel, a sylph, appears in the shape of a handsome young man in Belinda's dream.

(c) Oft, when the world .......... expel by new. 

REFERENCE
(i) Poem: The Rape of the Lock
(ii) Poet: Alexander Pope
CONTEXT
(i) Occurrence: Canto I
(ii) Content: Belinda arises to prepare for the day's social activities. After an elaborate ritual of dressing and primping, she travels on the Thames River of Hampton Court Palace, where a group of wealthy young societies are gathering for a party. Among them is the Baron, who has already made up his mind to steal a lock of Belinda's hair. At party, the Baron takes up a pair of scissors and cuts off the coveted lock of Belinda's hair. Belinda is furious. She initiates a scuffle between the ladies and the gentlemen to recover the severed curl. The lock is lost in the confusion of this mock battle.
EXPLANATION
     In these lines the poet describes the main job of sylphs. Sylphs, the spirits of air, guard the good name of young women through all kinds of social situations, especially regarding those with the opposite sex. Upper-class women in Pope's day had to be very careful about their reputations when it came to dealing with men who were not their fathers or husbands. They have to preserve their honour at all costs; in these lines, Pope imagines that the sylphs are are on a specific mission to help girls do just that. When the behaviour of girls seems absolutely inexplicable; they drop a friend for no good reason, they don't show up where or when they are supposed to, they fall in and out of love often - it's really the sylphs who are masterminding the whole confusing deal. Young men's music softens the minds of young girls and dancing inflames their passion. However, the sylphs guide the young girls through the "mystic mazes" of allurement, and and save them from the "giddy circle" of love. In short, the young girls are forced by the sylphs to show insolence towards men.

(d) To fifty chosen sylphs, ......... with ribs of whale;

REFERENCE
(i) Poem: The Rape of the Lock
(ii) Poet: Alexander Pope
CONTEXT
(i) Occurrence: Canto II
(ii) Content: Belinda arises to prepare for the day's social activities. After an elaborate ritual of dressing and primping, she travels on the Thames River of Hampton Court Palace, where a group of wealthy young societies are gathering for a party. Among them is the Baron, who has already made up his mind to steal a lock of Belinda's hair. At party, the Baron takes up a pair of scissors and cuts off the coveted lock of Belinda's hair. Belinda is furious. She initiates a scuffle between the ladies and the gentlemen to recover the severed curl. The lock is lost in the confusion of this mock battle.
EXPLANATION
     In these lines the poet describes how does Ariel assign sylphs to protect the petticoat of Belinda. Ariel, the head of sylphs, assigns an army of fifty selected sylphs to keep an eye on Belinda's skirt. Ariel thinks it a very important duty to protect Belinda's dress. There are two main reasons behind it. Firstly, women's skirts were huge in those days; Belinda's petticoat is seven-layered. Secondly, someone getting up Belinda's skirt, figuratively and literally, would probably be one of the worst things that could happen to her reputation. Reputation and honour, mainly when it came to sex, were really important to young society women in the 18th century. Although women's corsets and petticoats were pretty formidable in those days -- Belinda's petticoat was made with hoops and whale bone - the implication here is that all of that construction might not be enough to keep out a persistent suitor. In short, in these lines the poet critiques society's contradictory expectations with regard to female sexuality.
QUESTION NO. 24
Character Sketch of Belinda
COMING SOON!

QUESTION NO. 25 

(a) My face in thine eye, ........ without declining west? 

REFERENCE
(i) Poem: The Good-Morrow
(ii) Poet: John Donne
CONTEXT
(i) Occurrence: Stanza 3 (Lines 15-18 / 21)
(ii) Content: This poem is considered to be one of the best poems belonging to the metaphysical school of poetry. It describes the poet's profligate past and his present spiritual awakening. The subject is love, love seen as an intense, absolute experience, which isolates the lovers from reality and gives them a different kind of awareness; a simultaneous narrowing and widening of reality. This perfect love is immortal and it makes the lovers immortal too.
EXPLANATION
     In these lines the poets talks about the unique beauty of the love which he and his beloved, Anne Moore, share. Face-to-face with his lover, the poet sees his own face reflected in her eyes and assumes that she can see his too. It demonstrates a spiritual bond between them. Gazing into her eyes, the poet claims that emotional honesty resides in the face. The pure love in their hearts is written in their eyes and the expression of their mouths. The poets then puts a rhetorical question about their hearts, using a conceit to compare them to two separated hemispheres. Sure, the world has its own hemispheres, but those are an inferior product. The heart-hemispheres are perfectly designed and perfectly matched. With no cold wintry north, these hearts are full of warm southern love; and with no west, where the sun sets every day, bringing darkness to the world, they hold nothing but constancy and light. Thus the lovers world is out of this world, so it does not have the same problems as the real world has, it is utopic perfect.

(b) If our two loves ......... none can die. 

REFERENCE
(i) Poem: The Good-Morrow
(ii) Poet: John Donne
CONTEXT
(i) Occurrence: Stanza 3 (Lines 20- 21/ 21)
(ii) Content: This poem is considered to be one of the best poems belonging to the metaphysical school of poetry. It describes the poet's profligate past and his present spiritual awakening. The subject is love, love seen as an intense, absolute experience, which isolates the lovers from reality and gives them a different kind of awareness; a simultaneous narrowing and widening of reality. This perfect love is immortal and it makes the lovers immortal too.
EXPLANATION
     In these lines the poet has beautifully applied a metaphor of eternal love. He says that if the total love which is formed with the love of each of the members of the couple is in perfect proportion, that love will be a perfect body, a healthy heavenly being, and it will never weaken or die. Medieval theories of medicine state that diseases and death are caused by an imbalance in bodily humors. According to current thinking; only what is contrary or of different measure can disintegrate. So if the well-balanced love never ceases, dissolution is impossible. It means the couple, John Donne and Anne Moore, will go on living and loving each other forever. Thus perfect love in not only immortal; it makes the lovers immortal, too. In short, this image is very typical of Donne, and a perfect sophism.
(c) Goe and catche ......... keep off envies stinging, 

REFERENCE
(i) Poem: Song: Go and Catch a Falling Star
(ii) Poet: John Donne
CONTEXT
(i) Occurrence: Stanza 1 (Line 1-6/27)
(ii) Content: The reader is told to do seven impossible tasks; catching a falling star, begetting a child on a mandrake root, memory of past years, finding the name of the person who clove the Devil's foot, listening to the music of mermaids, changing human nature, and finding out the climate which would promote man's honesty. Just as it is impossible to do these jobs, in the same way it is impossible to find a "true and fair" woman even after a lifetime travels. The poet wishes he could go and see such a woman if she existed, but he knows that she would turn false by the time he got there.
EXPLANATION
     In these lines the poet throws out fanciful notions of impossible attainments. Falling star is known for its destruction and being out of reach. Mandrake is a type of plant from which drugs may be made, especially for causing sleep. The root of mandrake splitting in two parts is often thought to be man's two legs. Consequently a mandrake root represents male. However, the wish for female to be pregnant on mandrake root can only be heard in fairy tales. "All past years" indicate those past can never return. "The Devil's foot" is believed to be like that of the ox or the sheep, as observed that the foot or an ox or a sheep can never be split. Mermaids are mythological Greek creatures who lured sailors to their deaths with their singing, and enchanted the brain of a sailor to crash. The most astonishing thing is that mermaids were actually gender-less, which meant that their beauty was nothing but to kill. To envy is out of one's instinct while to keep off envy's stinging is out of question. In short, these lines describe the things beyond the bounds of possibility.

(d) If yet I have ........ other teare to fall;

REFERENCE
(i) Poem: Lovers' Infiniteness
(ii) Poet: John Donne
CONTEXT
(i) Occurrence: Stanza 1 (Lines 1-4/33)
(ii) Content: The poet complains that he does not yet have "all" of his beloved's love, despite using all of his resources to woo her. She should not leave some love for others, nor should she leave herself open to wooing by others later. Yet, he also wants her to keep some of her love for him in reserve so that they can enjoy a constantly growing relationship. He says that love must be "all" like the infiniteness of God's love, and cannot be partial. Any partition of love makes it less.
EXPLANATION
     In these lines the poet describes the impossibility of gaining the entire love of his lady. He regrets that if he does not have all the love of his lady, then he is not likely to ever have it all. He has striven hard to gain her entire love but unfortunately he has not got any more than what he had at the beginning. He has used his entire treasure of tears, entreaties and letters but he is not richer in love now than when the bargain for love began. Thus he cannot sigh, weep or plead with her anymore to gain her more affection. The poet is disturbed by the fact, if he only has a part his his lady's love, someone else must have the rest of it. In short, the poet has no faith in the ability of her lover to love him completely, and he is getting tired of all the pieces of work he has done to try to convince her do do so.
QUESTION NO. 28

Donne As a Love Poet
COMING SOON!

QUESTION NO. 33

(a) The long love that .......... with bold pretence.

REFERENCE
(i) Poem: The Long Love that in my Thought doth Harbour
(ii) Poet: Sir Thomas Wyatt
CONTEXT
(i) Occurrence: Start of the Poem (Lines 1-3/14)
(ii) Content: Love is lasting and resides in a heart. The poet is besotted in love, to the point that it shows on his face and he is just a fool overwhelmed by it all. Love has taken control of his thoughts. The object of his love, a woman, is turned off by is silly exuberance and reveres more substantial love. Anyway, love grows angry because his lust is not satisfied and retreats back into his lair, the poet's heart; where it is safe to experience pain and cry. The poet considers love his master, one who is control of his senses. He concludes that loving is life and it ends faithfully too. 
EXPLANATION
     In these lines the poets says that love harbours in thoughts, resides in heart and appears on face. The poet gives love the adjective of "long". Looking at the Oxford definition of long, it doesn't just mean an elongated shape; but also means lasting a great amount of time or relatively great in extent. Looking at it that way, the poet is telling us that his love is lasting and vast. Then he says that love harbours in thoughts. "Harbour" means keeping a thought or feeling in one's mind, especially secretly. The love that harbours in thoughts resides in the poet's heart. The word "his" suggests that the poet has personified love as a male. The love that resides in his heart is able to press against his face boldly and give away his emotions. The phrase "with bold pretence" likens the male lover's actions to that of the actions of a warrior who is making an audacious claim and therefore showing off his presence by utilizing the banner. 

(b) It it be yea, .......... and yours no more.

REFERENCE
(i) Poem: Yea or Nay
(ii) Poet: Sir Thomas Wyatt
CONTEXT
(i) Occurrence: End of the Poem (Lines 9-12/12)
(ii) Content: The poet challenges his lady to decide whether she is accepting of his suit. He pleads her to give up her trick and rely instead on her wit to impress him and show her true worth. He expresses that he burns with passion, and requests that if she has any compassion for him, she would tell him clearly, yes or no. He says that he will be happy with the answer yes, but if she says no, they will return to being friends as they were before. She will then be free to move on to get herself a new man, and the poet will be independent again, and no longer possessed by the lady. 
EXPLANATION
     In these lines the poet wants to get a clear cut answer from his beloved about their relationship to determine the course of their lives. The poet says that if her lady agrees to his suit, then he will be "fain" i.e. happy. Of course, a clever pun has been used here as the homophone "feign" means false, and it would be difficult to tell the two words apart without seeing the written word. If the poet is rejected, he says that they will return to being friends as they were before. There is no implication the he will be destroyed by grief or will mourn forever; the result will be undramatic. The poet callously implies that the lady will move on to anther lover. He, however, will be content to be "mine own" - his own man. His final words show that he will be relieved to no longer be owned by the lady. His freedom sounds much more appealing than her return to the fakery of courtly relationships with her beloved.  

(c) It was no dream: .......... fashion of forsaking;

REFERENCE
(i) Poem: They Flee From Me
(ii) Poet: Sir Thomas Wyatt
CONTEXT
(i) Occurrence: End of the Poem (Lines 15-17/21)
(ii) Content: The poet complains about the fact that women keep running away from him. They used to stalk his chamber, barefoot, and take bread from his hand, but now they don't come around anymore. Instead, they roam free, seeking change. But there was one, once, who was a little different. She came to him, scantily clad, and kissed him. It was not a dream, but it was a strange encounter nonetheless. After all, she just leaves him there, and goes off in search of other, new men. When all is said and done, he is not sure how this woman should be treated. 
EXPLANATION
     In these lines the poet insists that the erotic scene of kissing with Anne Boleyn was not a dream, but real. He was wide-awake, he swears! The phrase "through my gentleness" means because of my gentleness. The poet's promiscuous gentleness tame this girl. She kissed him, and this time he, not she, acquiesced. "Forsaking" suggests that the poet is the one now being forsaken by this girl, rather than the other way round. So basically, even though he was totally nice to her, this girl totally gave him the cold shoulder. Apparently, the poet's "gentleness" has somehow caused her to do so. Moreover, by using the words "gentleness" and "forsaking", the poet is trying to understand the "rejection he has undergone". This rejection is catastrophe to the poet because he has undergone a switch in roles. At the beginning of the poem he plays the dominate role by having many mistresses, then in the second stanza he allows himself to one mistress, who in the third stanza leaves him. So he is the one left stranded as he stranded many mistresses in the first stanza.  

(d) All is possible .........., and after preve,

REFERENCE
(i) Poem: Is it Possible
(ii) Poet: Sir Thomas Wyatt
CONTEXT
(i) Occurrence: End of the Poem (Lines 26-28/30)
(ii) Content: The poet speaks directly to a lady he has had a close relationship with. He wonders how their relationship ends with such sharp quarrel. However, they decide to end their quarrel by putting an end to their love. His love is converted into hate. He emphasizes the idea of unpredictability and changeability of women's emotions by comparing his beloved to a wind or weather. He also mentions that the relationship between him and his beloved is something like playing a dice game, based on chance and luck. Finally, he advises all men to trust women first before loving them. 
EXPLANATION
     In these lines the poet advises that one should not be swayed by the feelings of heart and be very cautious before loving someone. The phrase "All is possible" suggests that the poet has come into a state of confinement and consolation. After questioning through the poem as to how could his lover reject his love, the poet comes out of the wondering thoughts. He is trying to come to terms with the reality which is that he has lost his love and there is no way to get it back now. He here claims that it is possible for love to turn hostile. It is possible that the feelings of love can transform into hatred after they have reached a peak. He admits that it is quite possible that love does not show up as you expect and want it to. "Whoso list believe" means whoever wants to love must believe in his words: "trust therefore first, and after preve". He wants to say that love cannot exist without trust. Trust is worth more than love. In short, it is very important to trust someone before loving them.
QUESTION NO. 35

Wyatt As the Father of Modern English Poetry
COMING SOON!




2. SAMPLE ANSWERS - DRAMA


QUESTION NO. 1

(a) How dreadful knowledge ......... should not have come.

REFERENCE
(i) Drama: Oedipus Rex
(ii) Dramatist:  Sophocles
CONTEXT
(i) Occurrence: Scene I (Lines 101-103)
(ii) Content: Thebes is struck by a plague and the oracle of Apollo says the sickness is the result of injustice: the old king's murderer still walks free. The blind seer Tiresias tells Oedipus that he is the murderer and is living incestuously. Jocasta says an oracle said her husband, the old king, would be killed by his child, but that never happened since they abandoned the baby and her husband was killed by robbers. Oedipus begins to suspect that he was the abandoned baby. A messenger and a servant confirm the tale. Jocasta hangs herself and Oedipus stabs out his own eyes. 
EXPLANATION
     These are the very first words spoken by blind Tiresias before Oedipus in which he confesses that he must not have come to Oedipus' palace when he knew that the disclosure of the secret concerning Oedipus' parentage would shatter the whole palace. When this blind seer entered the palace, Oedipus was happy to notice that his visitor was a prophet who knew the secrets of heaven and earth and could as such tell him who the murderer was. He told the Tiresias that Apollo had sent back his messenger with the word that the catastrophe of pestilence would not be lifted from Thebes until and unless the identity of those who murdered Laius was established clearly and unless they were killed or banished. Oedipus then requested Tiresias to use bird-flight or any other sleight of hand to purify Thebes from the devastating contagion. Tiresias' reply in these lines shows that he knew the secret of the murder but he realized it as well as that his disclosure of truth would prove ruinous than the plague infecting Thebes.

(b) At a feast, .......... this relieved me.

REFERENCE
(i) Drama: Oedipus Rex
(ii) Dramatist: Sophocles
CONTEXT
(i) Occurrence: Scene II (Lines 251-257)
(ii) Content: Thebes is struck by a plague and the oracle of Apollo says the sickness is the result of injustice: the old king's murderer still walks free. The blind seer Tiresias tells Oedipus that he is the murderer and is living incestuously. Jocasta says an oracle said her husband, the old king, would be killed by his child, but that never happened since they abandoned the baby and her husband was killed by robbers. Oedipus begins to suspect that he was the abandoned baby. A messenger and a servant confirm the tale. Jocasta hangs herself and Oedipus stabs out his own eyes. 
EXPLANATION
     In these lines Oedipus is conversing with his wife, Jocasta, and telling her a strange event of his youth in Corinth. He tells her that Polybos of Corinth is his father and his mother, Merope, is a Dorian. He was brought up to be the chief of Corinth. But a strange event turned the tables. A drunken man at a public feast proclaimed that he was not his father's biological son; he is an adaptation. He got furious at his maundering. However, he suppressed his anger that night though with a sinking heart. The very next day he went to his parents and questioned about the drunken man's allegations. They were offended, and said it was a foolish allegation. He was no longer feeling distressed or anxious; he was reassured by their words. However, he was not fully satisfied. In short, this particular event is the main cause that Oedipus left Corinth. 
(c) O holy majesty ......... abomination destined me!

REFERENCE
(i) Drama: Oedipus Rex
(ii) Dramatist: Sophocles 
CONTEXT
(i) Occurrence: Scene II (Lines 304-307)
(ii) Content: Thebes is struck by a plague and the oracle of Apollo says the sickness is the result of injustice: the old king's murderer still walks free. The blind seer Tiresias tells Oedipus that he is the murderer and is living incestuously. Jocasta says an oracle said her husband, the old king, would be killed by his child, but that never happened since they abandoned the baby and her husband was killed by robbers. Oedipus begins to suspect that he was the abandoned baby. A messenger and a servant confirm the tale. Jocasta hangs herself and Oedipus stabs out his own eyes. 
EXPLANATION
     In these lines Oedipus is praying to holy God to save him from seeing the day when he will be declared the murderer of his father and the husband of his mother. He wishes to vanish from the midst of human beings before such an abomination devolves on his shoulders. He has just told his wife Jocasta when he passed Phokis, a place where the Theban road bifurcates into Delphi road and Daulia road, he came across a herald and a royal chariot whose driver when ordered by his lord to force him off the road leaned out towards him to beat him but he himself hit him with his stick. The old man sitting in the chariot could not tolerate it and flogged him at his head. In exasperation, he pulled the old man down from the chariot and killed him on the spot. Now if the old man was his father, then he unknowingly perpetrated parricide. In that case, he is the man hated most by the gods. So Oedipus fears that this cruel fate has created him for all his misfortunes emerging him from unintentional parricide and incest. If his fate is cruel, none would deny the savagery of gods. To remove all these fears, Oedipus is in these lines praying to God to keep him safe from such misfortune. 
QUESTION NO. 8 

Oedipus Rex As a Tragic Hero
COMING SOON!

(a) If we say .......... an everlasting death.

REFERENCE
(i) Drama: Doctor Faustus
(ii) Dramatist: Christopher Marlowe
CONTEXT
(i) Occurrence: Act I, Scene I (Lines 41-45)
(ii) Content: After mastering medicine, law, logic and theology, Faustus decides to pursue black magic in order to gain universal power. The Good Angel and the Bad Angel vie for Faustus' conscience, but Faustus ignores the Good Angel's pleas. He summons Mephistopheles and bargains to surrender his soul in exchange for twenty-four years of easy living. He performs marvelous deeds with the Devil's help. The twenty-four years of his deal with Lucifer comes to an end. He dies and is taken away by devils to his eternal damnation.
EXPLANATION
     Faustus speaks these lines near the end of his opening soliloquy. In this speech, he considers various fields of study one by one, beginning with logic and proceeding through medicine and law. Seeking the highest form of knowledge, he arrives at theology and opens the Bible to the New Testament, where he quotes from Romans and the first book of John. The logic of these quotations - everyone sins, and sin leads to death - makes it seem as though Christianity can promise only death, which leads Faustus to give in to the fatalistic. However, Faustus neglects to read the very next line in John, which states, "If we confess our sins, [God] is faithful and just to forgive our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness." In short, Faustus inverts the cosmos, making black magic "heavenly" and religion the source of "everlasting death". 
(b) How am I glutted .......... desperate enterprise will?

REFERENCE
(i) Drama: Doctor Faustus
(ii) Dramatist: Christopher Marlowe
CONTEXT
(i) Occurrence: Act 1, Scene I (Lines 77-80)
(ii) Content: After mastering medicine, law, logic and theology, Faustus decides to pursue black magic in order to gain universal power. The Good Angel and the Bad Angel vie for Faustus' conscience, but Faustus ignores the Good Angel's pleas. He summons Mephistopheles and bargains to surrender his soul in exchange for twenty-four years of easy living. He performs marvelous deeds with the Devil's help. The twenty-four years of his deal with Lucifer comes to an end. He dies and is taken away by devils to his eternal damnation.
EXPLANATION
     In these lines Faustus fantasizes himself as a great magician who is able to conjure up anything he desires. After the departure of good Angel and evil Angel, Faustus is at once launched at the long rodomontade in a soliloquy. He wonders that his mind is supersaturated with conceit. It means that he has an excessively favourable opinion of his own ability; the ability to become a commander and a godlike magician. He boasts of that with his black magic, spirits and demons will be under his control. With their aid, he will be able to get anything he wants. Moreover, he will become able to resolve his own problems, doubtfulness and wavering opinions. There will be no "desperate enterprise" for him. He will only wish and the hopeless or impossible task will be done. In short, Faustus has become a victim of megalomania and these lines enlist some of the plans of this megalomaniac magician.

(c) Had I as many souls .......... all for Mephistopheles.

REFERENCE
(i) Drama: Doctor Faustus
(ii) Dramatist: Christopher Marlowe
CONTEXT
(i) Occurrence: Act 1, Scene III (Lines 100-101)
(ii) Content: After mastering medicine, law, logic and theology, Faustus decides to pursue black magic in order to gain universal power. The Good Angel and the Bad Angel vie for Faustus' conscience, but Faustus ignores the Good Angel's pleas. He summons Mephistopheles and bargains to surrender his soul in exchange for twenty-four years of easy living. He performs marvelous deeds with the Devil's help. The twenty-four years of his deal with Lucifer comes to an end. He dies and is taken away by devils to his eternal damnation.
EXPLANATION
     These lines show Faustus' love for Mephistopheles and his desire to become the great Emperor of the world. Mephistopheles, a demon, is a source of never-ending delight for Faustus. It is no wonder Faustus is so willing to sign over his soul to Lucifer in exchange for twenty-four years of having Mephistopheles as his servant. Mephistopheles agrees to take this offer to his master and departs. Left alone, Faustus remarks that if he has "as many souls as there be stars" he would offer all to hell in return for the kind of power that Mephistopheles offers him. "As there be stars" is proverbial for an infinite amount. Faustus' combination of romantic imagery of stars linked with the souls is ironic, as there is only one soul in one body and countless stars in the single sky. This makes Faustus seem idiotic. These lines also suggest a slight homoerotic relationship between Faustus and Mephistopheles.
QUESTION NO. 14

Renaissance Elements in "Dr. Faustus"
COMING SOON!
QUESTION NO. 17

(a) To be suspected, .......... as asses are. 

REFERENCE
(i) Drama: Othello 
(ii) Dramatist: William Shakespeare
CONTEXT
(i) Occurrence: Act 1, Scene III
(ii) Content: Iago plots against Othello and sends Roderigo to tell Brabantio that Othello has seduced Desdemona, Brabantio's daughter. After convincing Brabantio that he has won Desdemona's love, Othello is sent to Cyprus for a military command. Iago plants a handkerchief that Othello gave to Desdemona on Cassio to convince Othello that Cassio and Desdemona have an affair. Iago also convinces Roderigo to make an attempt on Cassio's life. He frames the courtesan Bianca and murders Roderigo. Mad with jealously, Othello smothers Desdemona, Iago's wife Emilia stumbles upon the murder and exposes Iago's plots, for which Iago kills her. Othello, realizing his error, kills himself.
EXPLANATION
     These lines are spoken by the antagonist Iago. In these lines Iago says that suspicion leads to destruction and honest people are easy to manipulate. Iago has made a plot to destroy Othello. For this purpose, he wants to make Othello believe that Desdemona, Othello's wife, is having an affair with Cassio. He plans to plant the seed of suspicion in Othello to make Desdemona false. Moreover, Iago has openly recognized Othello's good nature. He knows that Othello is generous and straightforward. He thinks any man who seems honest is honest. These people are gullible and easy to handle. They are just like asses who can easily be led by the nose. We can control them so that they do exactly what we want them to do. In short, Iago implicitly suggests that he himself has none of the virtuous attributes which Othello does have.

(b) Now, by heaven, ......... to lead the way. 

REFERENCE
(i) Drama: Othello 
(ii) Dramatist: William Shakespeare
CONTEXT
(i) Occurrence: Act 2, Scene III
(ii) Content: Iago plots against Othello and sends Roderigo to tell Brabantio that Othello has seduced Desdemona, Brabantio's daughter. After convincing Brabantio that he has won Desdemona's love, Othello is sent to Cyprus for a military command. Iago plants a handkerchief that Othello gave to Desdemona on Cassio to convince Othello that Cassio and Desdemona have an affair. Iago also convinces Roderigo to make an attempt on Cassio's life. He frames the courtesan Bianca and murders Roderigo. Mad with jealously, Othello smothers Desdemona, Iago's wife Emilia stumbles upon the murder and exposes Iago's plots, for which Iago kills her. Othello, realizing his error, kills himself.
EXPLANATION
     These lines reveal an important flaw in Othello's character for the first time. Othello is not a logical and sensible person. When he is angry or emotionally moved, he allows himself to act according to his heart rather than his mind. His self-control is overcome by his anger, and his best judgment is darkened by his passions. In fact, Othello is awakened from his wedding bed by a commotion and a brawl in a tavern involving none other than his lieutenant Cassio and a gentleman Roderigo. He is surprised more than a little irritated by the fact that he is aroused and ousted from his bed in the middle of the night. Othello dismisses Cassio without even waiting until morning to further consider and consult others before making a decision. Othello himself knows this flaw and describes it perfectly in these lines. Why then does he not, knowing his weakness, endeavour to correct it? It seems that he does not consider this aspect of his character a flaw at all, rather an integral part of his personality.

(c) I had rather be .......... for other' uses. 

REFERENCE
(i) Drama: Othello 
(ii) Dramatist: William Shakespeare
CONTEXT
(i) Occurrence: Act 3, Scene III
(ii) Content: Iago plots against Othello and sends Roderigo to tell Brabantio that Othello has seduced Desdemona, Brabantio's daughter. After convincing Brabantio that he has won Desdemona's love, Othello is sent to Cyprus for a military command. Iago plants a handkerchief that Othello gave to Desdemona on Cassio to convince Othello that Cassio and Desdemona have an affair. Iago also convinces Roderigo to make an attempt on Cassio's life. He frames the courtesan Bianca and murders Roderigo. Mad with jealously, Othello smothers Desdemona, Iago's wife Emilia stumbles upon the murder and exposes Iago's plots, for which Iago kills her. Othello, realizing his error, kills himself.
EXPLANATION
     These lines are seized on as an example of Othello's self-pity, and of his insensitivity to Desdemona as a person. When Othello is convinced by Iago that Desdemona has cheated on him, he is drowned in self-pity. He wishes he were the most loathsome toad in the filthiest basement than to have only a part of someone he loves, sharing the rest of her with others. He feels injured in his pride, and in his self-respect. The animal reference clearly shows Iago's influence on Othello. The toad analogy is also a hyperbole used to express the direness of his angst. Othello also uses depersonalizing words "corner" and "thing" for Desdemona which can be interpreted as misogynistic or simply terminology from Shakespeare's time. These words also suggest that if she is promiscuous, then she is indeed an object; attempting to push away from him the pain of the sexual hurt, or the disappointment of his conviction of her uniquely individual value.
QUESTION NO. 21

Theme of Jealousy in "Othello"

1. Introduction
     Jealousy is a mental cancer. It is an emotion, and the word typically refers to the thoughts and feelings of insecurity, fear, concern and anxiety over an anticipated loss or status of great personal value, particularly in reference to a human connection. Five characters in "Othello" by Shakespeare are victims of jealousy. Iago and Bianca are jealous about Cassio, Brabantio, Roderigo and Iago are jealous about Othello, and Othello becomes jealous of Desdemona. Emilia is not jealous about anyone but has a theory that jealousy is a constituent part of masculinity. Except Brabantio's jealousy of Othello and Iago's jealousy of Cassio, all characters are suffering from sexual jealousy - a jealousy which is triggered in a person when a sexual partner displays sexual interest in another person. 
2. Iago's Jealousy of Cassio
     Iago is a soldier who fights alongside Othello in his army. Proving loyal with every fight, Iago assumes that the upcoming promotion for lieutenant is imminent. Unfortunately, the promotion is given to Micheal Cassio instead. Iago cannot understand this appointment because Cassio is an inexperienced soldier who has no practical knowledge of battle. He is a man of theoretical learning. On the other hand, Iago is given the job of Ensign, or flag-bearer that is humiliating for a man who considers himself intellectually superior to everyone around him. Iago thus becomes jealous of Cassio who is now of higher rank and is young and handsome to boot. 
3. Iago's Jealousy of Othello
     Othello is a general in the Venetian defense forces. He is newly and happily married to an aristocratic Venetian woman, Desdemona. Iago is jealous of Othello's position and his ability to woo the young and alluring Desdemona. It is possible that Iago has his own secret passion for the Moor's new bride, and he is enraged at the idea of the "old black ram" attaining what he himself desires. Moreover, Iago is stuck in a loveless marriage to a woman who frequently nags him. Thus he is jealous of Othello and Desdemona's happiness in love. The jealously gets intensified when he hears a rumor that Othello has been sleeping with his wife, Emilia.
4. Brabantio's Jealousy of Othello
     Brabantio is Desdemona's father. He is jealous of the Moor for stealing his daughter's love. He accuses his new son-in-law of being a "foul-thief". He becomes jealous because he knows that he will no longer be the most important person in Desdemona's life. After Desdemona makes it clear that she loves and honours her husband, Brabantio remains vindictive, and bitterly warns Othello that Desdemona may turn out to be a slut:
Look to her, Moor, if thou hast eyes to see:
She has deceived her father, and may thee
No father has ever expressed a more hateful jealousy of his son-in-law as Brabantio.
5. Roderigo's Jealousy of Othello
      Roderigo is a wooer of Desdemona. The lovesick Roderigo has trouble with his feelings for Desdemona and is jealous watching Othello and Desdemona in love. He follows Iago's directions easily because of his jealousy of Othello's relationship with Desdemona. Along with Iago and Brabantio, he berates and criticizes Othello about everything, including race. He expresses his jealousy of Othello's marriage to Desdemona by exclaiming,
What a full fortune does the thick-lips owe
If he can carry't thus!
6. Bianca's Jealousy of Cassio
     Bianca is Cassio's prostitute girlfriend. She becomes sick with jealousy when Cassio gives her a handkerchief in order to copy Desdemona's handkerchief for him. Bianca is already unhappy with Cassio because he has not been to see her in a week, and the sight of a woman's handkerchief gives her an attack of jealousy. She throws handkerchief back at Cassio, tells him that he should give it to the whore he got it from, and declares that no matter where he got it, she is not about to copy it. Though Bianca's jealousy exists on a much smaller scale, it illustrates that the sentiment is universal.
7. Othello's Jealousy of Desdemona
     Iago plants the seed of jealousy in Othello in Act 3, Scene 3. Iago convinces Othello that Desdemona has been an unfaithful wife; she has an affair with Cassio. Othello believes Iago's lies, despite that there is not much evidence. His jealousy leads him to be too trusting of Iago. As he begins to believe the accusations, his love, affection and kindness for Desdemona fade away. Othello's jealousy reaches its peak when his token of love for Desdemona, the handkerchief, is shown up in Cassio's possession. Othello is completely convinced that Desdemona is unfaithful and he kills her because he has not way to resolve his jealousy.
8. Iago's Remarks About Jealousy
     Iago describes jealousy as a "green-eyed monster". The meat that this monster feeds on is a person's heart, which it eats away. At the same time, the monster mocks that person's heart, so that he or she feels shame. And the monster is insatiable, always gnawing away, so that the jealous person is never at peace.
O, beware, my lord, of jealousy;
It is the green-eyed monster which doth mock
The meat it feeds on;
Iago also describes jealousy as a "poison" that consumes the jealous person, eating away at him and filling him with a passionate desire for revenge.
9. Emilia's Remarks About Jealousy
     Emilia believes that jealousy does not need a cause. It is a beast that is born of itself and feeds on itself. The root of jealousy is not some action of infidelity but insecurity on the part of the one jealous. Throughout the play, Iago accuses Emilia of being unfaithful to him, just as Othello accuses Desdemona. She has never been untrue to Iago as Desdemona has never been untrue to Othello. Thus jealousy does not need an unfaithful act to inspire it. It is a part of a man or woman's nature.
But jealous souls will not be answer'd so;
They are not ever jealous for the cause, 
But jealous for they are jealous: 'tis a monster
Begot upon itself, born on itself.
10. Conclusion
     In short, jealousy, rooted in fear and anger, is a bad emotion to feel and bad quality to possess. Jealous people do very foolish things, particularly in the case of romantic and sexual jealousy. Abnormal jealousy is a very complex, passionate and fatal emotion that devours those who allow it to dominate their lives. This "green-eyed monster" kills Roderigo, Desdemona, Emilia and Othello. Brabantio has also died and Iago will die in the near future after a drawn out punishment. It is ironic that almost all of the characters in the play feel jealous about things that never actually happened -- baseless jealousy for the most part provokes their outbursts. 
QUESTION NO. 25

(a) No, in good earnest ......... to harder bosoms!

REFERENCE
(i) Drama: The Winter's Tale
(ii) Dramatist: William Shakespeare
CONTEXT
(i) Occurrence: Act 1, Scene II
(ii) Content: Leontes, king of Sicilia, suspects that his wife Hermione has an affair with his friend Polixenes, king of Bohemia. Her orders Camillo to poison Polixenes. However, Camillo helps Polixenes to escape back to Bohemia. Hermione is thrown into jail and has a baby while imprisoned. The king orders Antigonus to abandon the child. Hermione dies in the jail. Antigonus takes the baby to Bohemia. The little girl is found by a Shepherd and is named Perdita. Camillo, after serving Polixenes sixteen years, longs to return to Sicilia. Polixenes also goes with him in disguise. At a festival, Florizell declares his love for Perdita in front of his disguised father. The king threatens to disown Florizell and execute Perdita. The lovers go to Leontes. Here Perdita's true parentage is revealed and the royal families are reunited. 
EXPLANATION
     In these lines Leontes wants to say that affections not felt are disbelieved or despised. When his wife Hermione asks him "Are you mov'd, my lord?", he says, "No, in good earnest". However, this is an ironical statement of Leontes because he is, in fact, agitated; he suspects that there is a torrid affair between his wife Hermione and his friend Polixenes. "No, in good earnest" also connotes that there is no advantage or benefit of being a sincere and honest person. Leontes then contemplates the power of human nature. He wonders how sometimes human nature can seduce a man's foolishness and weakness. He generalizes that the betrayal of human nature makes man the laughing stock of those unsentimental people who have stronger hearts. In short, these lines a a true description of human nature and its power to control passions and sentiments, and thus a perfect example of Shakespeare's aphorism. 

(b) Should a villain .........do but mistake. 

REFERENCE
(i) Drama: The Winter's Tale
(ii) Dramatist: William Shakespeare
CONTEXT
(i) Occurrence: Act 2, Scene I
(ii) Content: Leontes, king of Sicilia, suspects that his wife Hermione has an affair with his friend Polixenes, king of Bohemia. Her orders Camillo to poison Polixenes. However, Camillo helps Polixenes to escape back to Bohemia. Hermione is thrown into jail and has a baby while imprisoned. The king orders Antigonus to abandon the child. Hermione dies in the jail. Antigonus takes the baby to Bohemia. The little girl is found by a Shepherd and is named Perdita. Camillo, after serving Polixenes sixteen years, longs to return to Sicilia. Polixenes also goes with him in disguise. At a festival, Florizell declares his love for Perdita in front of his disguised father. The king threatens to disown Florizell and execute Perdita. The lovers go to Leontes. Here Perdita's true parentage is revealed and the royal families are reunited
EXPLANATION
     These lines are spoken by Hermione in response to Leontes' false accusation at her. Leontes has just burst into Hermione's room where she was having a quiet time with her son. Here he accuses her, in no uncertain terms, of adultery, with his friend Polixenes. Hermione receives the first intimation of her husband's jealous suspicions with incredulous astonishment. It is not that, like Desdemona, she does not or cannot understand, but she will not. When her husband accuses her more plainly, she replies with a calm dignity. She says that her husband is not a villain or scoundrel. If a villain had accused her of such a thing, even though he were the perfect villain in the world, his villainy would become double that it was before. She thinks that slinging false accusation of adultery at someone is the meanest act that a villain can do. However, as for husband, he is merely mistaken. He is absolutely wrong in his judgment. In short, Hermione thinks that her husband is not a true villain but a mistaken jealous tyrant.

(c) There's is some ill ......... aspect more favourable. 

REFERENCE
(i) Drama: The Winter's Tale
(ii) Dramatist: William Shakespeare
CONTEXT
(i) Occurrence: Act 2, Scene I
(ii) Content: Leontes, king of Sicilia, suspects that his wife Hermione has an affair with his friend Polixenes, king of Bohemia. Her orders Camillo to poison Polixenes. However, Camillo helps Polixenes to escape back to Bohemia. Hermione is thrown into jail and has a baby while imprisoned. The king orders Antigonus to abandon the child. Hermione dies in the jail. Antigonus takes the baby to Bohemia. The little girl is found by a Shepherd and is named Perdita. Camillo, after serving Polixenes sixteen years, longs to return to Sicilia. Polixenes also goes with him in disguise. At a festival, Florizell declares his love for Perdita in front of his disguised father. The king threatens to disown Florizell and execute Perdita. The lovers go to Leontes. Here Perdita's true parentage is revealed and the royal families are reunited
EXPLANATION
    In these lines Hermoine says that human destiny is determined by stars. She thinks that some malign star is in the ascendant so the tides of her fortune have changed. Her husband, Loentes has wrongly accused her of adultery and pilloried her for infidelity. Due to this evil star, her happiness has been poisoned by the frantic jealousy of her husband. She deems that she has little chance to avoid her predicament as far as this "ill planet" is governing her her destiny. However, what cannot be cured must be endured. So she determines to wait patiently until the heavens are more favourably aligned and gods "look" on her with kinder expressions. Hermoine had to wait a solid 16 years in that misfortune for the manifestation of said "more favourable aspect". In short, Hermoine's resolve to undergo the saint-like patience thrills us with admiration as well as pity. These lines also contradict Shakespeare's famous notion;
The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars,
But in ourselves, that we are underlings, 
(Julius Caesar)
QUESTION NO. 28

"The Winter's Tale" As a Tragic Comedy
COMING SOON!
QUESTION NO. 33

(a) Nothing will induce me .......... tedious time of it. 

REFERENCE
(i) Drama: The Importance of Being Earnest
(ii) Dramatist: Oscar Wilde
CONTEXT
(i) Occurrence: Act 1
(ii) Content: Jack and Algernon are wealthy gentlemen. Jack lives in the country and Algernon dwells in London. Algernon visits Jack's house and introduces to Jack's young ward Cecily as Ernest, the assumed named of Jack. Shortly after, Jack arrives home announcing Ernest's death. Cecily and Gwendolen have a genteel stand-off over which of that has a prior claim on "Ernest". Jack and Algernon vie to be christened Ernest. Eventually, Jack discovers that his parents were Lady Bracknell's sister and brother-in-law and that he is Algernon's older brother, called Ernest. Algernon/Cecily, Jack/Gwendolen and Chasuble/Prism fall into each other's arms as Jack realizes the importance of being earnest. 
EXPLANATION
     In these lines Algernon tells the importance of Bunbury in a married life. Algernon speaks these lines in reply to Jack's announcement that he plans to assassinate his imaginary brother Ernest and his suggestion that Algernon do the same with Bunbury. Algernon refuses to part with Bunbury at any cost. He thinks that Bunbury is an excuse for a person to get out of his responsibilities. He says to Jack that "in married life there is a company and two is none". If Jack ever gets married, he will be glad to know Bunbury because Bunbury is a very useful tool for a husband or wife for "married bliss". It also suggests that couples are not faithful to each other after matrimony. Thus absence of Bunbury in the lives of married couples makes their lives "a very tedious time". In short, these lines suggest that husbands and wives in Victorian society were hypocrites as they led double lives.
(b) I do not approve .......... no effect whatsoever. 

REFERENCE
(i) Drama: The Importance of Being Earnest
(ii) Dramatist: Oscar Wilde
CONTEXT
(i) Occurrence: Act 1
(ii) Content: Jack and Algernon are wealthy gentlemen. Jack lives in the country and Algernon dwells in London. Algernon visits Jack's house and introduces to Jack's young ward Cecily as Ernest, the assumed named of Jack. Shortly after, Jack arrives home announcing Ernest's death. Cecily and Gwendolen have a genteel stand-off over which of that has a prior claim on "Ernest". Jack and Algernon vie to be christened Ernest. Eventually, Jack discovers that his parents were Lady Bracknell's sister and brother-in-law and that he is Algernon's older brother, called Ernest. Algernon/Cecily, Jack/Gwendolen and Chasuble/Prism fall into each other's arms as Jack realizes the importance of being earnest. 
EXPLANATION
     In these lines Lady Bracknell thinks of ignorance as a virtue of the rich. She speaks these lines as a part of her inquiry into Jack's suitability for marriage with her daughter Gwendolen. She has just told him she believes that a man who wants to marry should know everything or nothing, and Jack, sensing the trap, has said he knows nothing. Lady Bracknell greets the news with complacency and says only, "I am pleased to hear it". She is, in fact, against anything that can cause damage to "natural ignorance". "Anything" here means "modern education"; the biggest rival of ignorance. Her statement "Ignorance is like a delicate exotic fruit" is a beautiful simile. Many exotic flowers and plants are delicate, if we touch them, the petals or leaves fall off. Ignorance is the same; a touch of knowledge destroys it. "Education produces no effect" is a paradox to explain that, in the upper classes, education is worthless. The typical upper class Victorian was notorious for being "sent down" of the major university of Oxford or Cambridge. Being "sent down" was almost a trademark of the upper-class dandy. In short, Lady Bracknell, in these lines, embodies the mind-bogging stupidity of the British aristocracy.
(c) Your vanity is ridiculous, .......... journey back to town. 

REFERENCE
(i) Drama: The Importance of Being Earnest
(ii) Dramatist: Oscar Wilde
CONTEXT
(i) Occurrence: Act 2
(ii) Content: Jack and Algernon are wealthy gentlemen. Jack lives in the country and Algernon dwells in London. Algernon visits Jack's house and introduces to Jack's young ward Cecily as Ernest, the assumed named of Jack. Shortly after, Jack arrives home announcing Ernest's death. Cecily and Gwendolen have a genteel stand-off over which of that has a prior claim on "Ernest". Jack and Algernon vie to be christened Ernest. Eventually, Jack discovers that his parents were Lady Bracknell's sister and brother-in-law and that he is Algernon's older brother, called Ernest. Algernon/Cecily, Jack/Gwendolen and Chasuble/Prism fall into each other's arms as Jack realizes the importance of being earnest. 
EXPLANATION
     These lines describe Jack's hypocritical judgment of Algernon. Jack snubs Algernon's vanity as absurd. He wants to say that Algernon's excessive pride in his own appearance invites derision for others. He says so because Algernon always claims to be "over dressed" and "immensely over-educated". He also spurns Algernon's behaviour disdainfully. He calls his behaviour an extremely strong reaction of anger, shock and indignation. Moreover, he is not happy at all to have Algernon in his "garden". He wants to get rid of him as soon as possible. When Algernon says that he is going to stay for a whole week as Jack's guest, Jack replies, "You are certainly not staying with me for a whole week as a guest or anything else. You have got to leave by the four-five train." He ironically says that Algernon will have an enjoyable journey back to his town. In short, these lines express Jack's disdain and contempt for the decorative bachelor, Algernon.
QUESTION NO. 40

Character Sketch of Miss Prism
COMING SOON!




3. SAMPLE ANSWERS - NOVEL

QUESTION NO. 1.

Major Thematic Concerns in "Barchester Towers"
COMING SOON!
QUESTION NO. 7

Character Sketch of Mr. Slope
COMING SOON!
QUESTION NO. 11

Themes of Love and Marriage in "Pride and Prejudice" 
COMING SOON!
QUESTION NO. 12

Character Sketch of Elizabeth Bennet
COMING SOON!
QUESTION NO. 20

George Eliot's Narrative Technique
COMING SOON!
QUESTION NO. 22

Character Sketch of Adam Bede
COMING SOON!
QUESTION NO. 27

Theme of Death and Resurrection in "A Tale of Two Cities" 
COMING SOON!
QUESTION NO. 28

Character Sketch of Sydney Carton
COMING SOON!
QUESTION NO. 33. 

"The Return of the Native" As a Tragedy
COMING SOON!
QUESTION NO. 38

Character Sketch of Eustacia Vye
COMING SOON!




4. SAMPLE ANSWERS - PROSE

QUESTION NO. 1

Bacon's Prose Style
COMING SOON!

QUESTION NO. 5

Renaissance Elements in Bacon
COMING SOON!

QUESTION NO. 10

Swift As a Satirist
COMING SOON!

QUESTION NO. 11

Swift as a Misanthrope
COMING SOON!

QUESTION NO. 17

Russell's Prose Style
COMING SOON!

QUESTION NO 19

Russell As a Philosopher
COMING SOON!

QUESTION NO. 25

Edward Said's Prose Style

Introduction
     Style is a fundamental aspect of prose. It is the literary element that describes the ways that the author uses words, sentence structure, figurative language, and sentence arrangement which work together to establish mood, images, and meaning in the text. Style describes how the author describes events, objects, and ideas. An author's style is what sets his or her writing apart and makes it unique. Edward Said is a distinguished prose writer of 21st century. Most of his writings are about discourses of imperialism, Islam, Palestinian colonization by Israel and music. Said's style of writing can be studied in thematic analysis of his essays and books. Paradoxical nature of identity, celebration of of exile, repetition of ideas, writer as theorist, interrogative introduction, imperialistic allusions, musicality of text and coining new terms are the salient features of Said's prose style.  
1. The Paradoxical Position
     As critic, political commentator, literary and cultural theorist or New York citizen, Edward Said demonstrates the often paradoxical nature of identity in an increasingly migratory and globalized world. In him, we find a person located in a tangle of cultural and theoretical contradictions: contradictions between his political voice and professional position; contradictions between the different ways in which he has been read; contradictions in the way he is located in the academy. The intimate connection between Said's identity and his cultural theory, and the paradoxes these reveal, show us something about the constructedness and complexity of cultural identity itself. 
2. Celebration of Exile
     Said deliberately celebrates exile in his prose. Whatever he writes, we see an intangible effect of nostalgia and thrust for rootlessness, because of all the trauma and pain of homelessness he has suffered. This places the exile in a singular position with regard to history and society, but also in a much more anxious and ambivalent position with regard to culture: "Exile ... is 'a mind of winter' in which the pathos of summer and autumn as much as the potential of spring are nearby but unobtainable. Perhaps this is another way of saying that a life of exile moves according to a different calendar, and is less seasonal and settled than life at home. Exile is life led outside habitual order. It is nomadic, decentered, contrapuntal; but no sooner does one get accustomed to it than its unsettling force erupts anew."
3. Repetition of Ideas
     Another important feature of Edward Said's writing is repetition of ideas. Repetition imposes certain constraints upon the interpretation of the text; it historicizes the text as something which originates in the world, which insists upon its own being. Said's work constantly rehearses the features of his own peculiar academic and cultural location, or the 'text' of his own life -- exile, politicization, the living of two lives, the insistent questions of identity, and the passionate defense of Palestine. All his essays in one or other way talk about same thing even he keeps stressing on one thing in one essay. For example his essays like "Islam as News" and "Orientalism" talk in a language of "binary opposition" to undermine the western culture and imperialism and its operation in the entire globe. 
4. Writer As Theorist
     Out of the issue of Palestine grows one of the most important themes in Said's theory -- the role of the intellectual. From the position of a professional literary theorist established in the elite academic environment of Columbia University, Said has been required to adopt the role of a spokesperson, called out to talk about political issues for which he had no special qualification. This confirmed his belief in the value of amateurism, but much more than that it gave him a vision of the importance of exile in empowering the intellectual to be detached from partisan politics in order to 'speak truth to power'. The sense of 'non-belonging' has confirmed his own sense that the public intellectual needs to speak from the margin. It is his unique characteristic of being a prose writer whom invents new positions and roles for a writer than just being a critic. 
5. Interrogative Introduction
     The style of Said seems to be discursive, conversational and even repetitive, but his writings are quite thought provoking. The most striking feature of his essays is that he begins his essay with a questions like statement to set a course of discussion in the mind of reader. In Representations of the Intellectual, while discussing the role of an intellectual, Said poses an important questioning the beginning: how far should an intellectual go in getting involved? Is is possible to join a party or faction and retain a semblance of independence? This question asking style has positioned Said's writings at a unique height of literary canon. 
6. Imperialistic Allusions From Literature
     In Said's writing while talking about relation between imperialism, colonization and culture we come across references of different Victorian novels like Robinson Crusoe, Great Expectations, Heart of Darkness and Mansfield Park to understand the underlined imperialist ideologies. Said believes that novel has been important in formation of imperialistic attitudes, references, and experiences, In Said's writing, novels are not the ones which caused imperialism, but that the novel is the cultural artifact of bourgeois society. He argues that the narratives of emancipation and enlightenment mobilized the people to rise against the yoke of imperialism. In short, illusions of previous time's fiction is a very striking feature of Said's writing. 
7. Musicality of Text
     Said was a music lover and a musician himself. Said was fascinated by the connection between memory and music, by how remembrances of things played, as he once put it, are enacted. Music for Said was inspiring. When he played Schubert's Fantasie in a film about him directed by Salem Brahimi, his face quivered with every note that his hands transported on the keyboard. Indeed, Said would always make connections and references to Palestine, even in his more esoteric essays about literature, theory, or music. Fantasie might also have served as a kind of premonition for Said that it would be his swansong, his passion for music always made him feel nostalgic about his past and homeland. Even in his text structure we see a very smooth pattern making his writing bit musical. 
8. Coining New Terms
     Said coined some useful terms like Orientalism and contrapuntal. In his book "Orientalism", Said defines orientalism as the acceptance in the West of "the basic distinction between East and West as the starting point for elaborate theories, epics, novels, social descriptions, and political accounts concerning the Orient, its people, customs, mind,  destiny and so on". Borrowed from music, where it refers to the relationship between themes, the term "contrapuntal reading" is used by Edward Said in "Culture and Imperialism" to describe the relationship between narratives set in metropolitan centres, or at least in the countryside, of the dominant colonial nations such as England and France, and the colonies upon which the great powers depended for their wealth. 
Conclusion
     Edward Said's prose style is inspiring, generative and eloquent. For writers striving to create structures of clarity and meaning, Said has few competitors. He is different from all other prose writers in sense of content and text. The concepts which he deals with are not discussed by any other prose writer. Underneath the self-posturing verbiage there is an acute analytic mind at work. Said is not only a critic but a socialist and a reformer as well. By dealing with sensitive issues like colonization, imperialism and trying to counter Islamophobia presented by the West, he mostly focuses on themes. In short, the most prominent features of Said's prose style are his use of imperialistic illusions and coining of new terms.  

QUESTION NO. 29

Central Thesis of "Introduction to Culture and Imperialism"
COMING SOON!

QUESTION NO. 33

Heaney's Prose Style
COMING SOON!

QUESTION NO. 36

Heanry's Defense of Poetry
COMING SOON!


5. SAMPLE ANSWERS - AMERICAN LITERATURE

QUESTION NO. 1

Major Themes in Adrienne Rich's Poetry

Introduction

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Conclusion



QUESTION NO. 5

Major Themes in Sylvia Plath's Poetry

Introduction
     Themes are the fundamental and often universal ideas explored in a literary work that may be stated directly or indirectly. Themes are truths that exhibit universality and stand true for people of all cultures. Through themes, a writer tries to give his readers an insight into how the world works or how he or she views human life. Usually the theme of a work of literature can be stated in one word, such as "love" or "solitude". There seem to be a number of common themes running through all of Plath's poems, which encapsulate her personal attitudes and feelings of life at the time she wrote them. Of these themes, the most prevalent are: death, victimization, patriarchy, nature, the self, the body, motherhood, sexuality and love. 
1. Death
     Death is an ever-present reality in Plath's poetry, and manifests in several ways. One common theme is the void left by her father's death. In "Full Fathom Five", she speaks of his death and burial, mourning that she is forever exiled. In "The Colossus", she tries in vain to put him back together again and make him speak. In "Daddy", she goes further in claiming that she wants to kill him herself, finally exorcising his vicious hold over her mind and work. Death is also dealt with in terms of suicide, which eerily corresponds to her own suicide attempts and eventual death by suicide. In "Lady Lazarus", she claims that she has mastered the art of dying after trying to kill herself multiple times. In short, Death is an immensely vivid aspect of Plath's work, both in metaphorical and literal representations.
2. Victimization
   Plath felt like a victim to the men in her life, including her father, her husband, and the great male-dominated literary world. Her poetry can often be understood as response to these feelings of victimization, and many of the poems with a male figure can be interpreted as referring to any or all of these male forces in her life.In regards to her father, she realized she could never escape his terrible hold over her; she expressed her sense of victim-hood in "The Colossus" and "Daddy". Her husband also victimized her through the power he exerted as a man, both by assuming he should have the literary career and through his infidelity. However, in her later poems, she seems finally able to transcend her status as victim by fully embracing her creative gifts (Ariel), metaphorically killing her father (Daddy), and committing suicide (Lady Lazarus, Edge).
3. Patriarchy
     Plath lived and worked in 1950/1960s England and America, societies characterized by very strict gender norms. Women were expected to remain safely in the house, with motherhood as their ultimate joy and goal.Women who ventured into the arts found it difficult to attain much attention for their work, and were often subject to marginalization and disdain. Plath explored and challenged this reductionist tendency through her work, offering poems of intense vitality and stunning language. She depicted the bleakness of the domestic scene, the disappointment of pregnancy, the despair over her husband's infidelity, her tortured relationship with her father, and her attempts to find her own creative voice amidst the crushing weight of patriarchy.
4. Nature
    Images and allusions to nature permeate Plath's poetry. She often evokes the sea and the fields to great effect. The sea is usually associated with her father; it is powerful, unpredictable, mesmerizing, and dangerous. In "Full Fathom Five", her father is depicted as a sea god. She also pulled from her personal life, writing of horse-riding on the English fields, in "Sheep in Fog" and "Ariel". Nature is also manifested in the bright red tulips which jolt the listless Plath from her post-operation stupor, insisting that she return to the world of the living. Here, nature is a provoker, an instigator - it does not want her to give up Nature is a ubiquitous theme in Plath's work; it is a potent force that is sometimes unpredictable, but usually works to encourage her creative output.
5. The Self
     Plath has often been grouped into the confessional movement of poetry. One of the reason for this classification is that she wrote extensively of her own life, her own thoughts, her own worries. Any great artist both creates his or her art and is created by it, and Plath was always endeavoring to know herself better through her writing. She tried to come to terms with her personal demons, and tried to work through her problematic relationships. For instance, she tried to understand her ambivalence about motherhood, and tried to vent her rage at her failed marriage. However, her exploration of herself can also be understood as an exploration of the idea of the self, as it stands opposed to society as a whole and to other people, whom she did not particularly like. This conflict - between the self and the world outside - can be used to understand almost all of Plath's poems.
6. The Body
     Many of Plath's poems deal with the body, in terms of motherhood, wounds, operations, and death. In "Metaphors", she describes how her body does not feel like it is her own; she is simply a "means" towards delivering a child. In "Tulips" and "A Life", the body has undergone an operation. With the surgery comes an excising of emotion, attachment, connection, and responsibility. "Cut" depicts the thrill Plath feels on almost cutting her own thumb off. "Contusion" takes things further - she has received a bruise for some reason, but unlike in "Cut", where she eventually seems to grow uneasy with the wound, she seems to welcome the physical pain, since the bruise suggests an imminent end of her suffering. Suicide, the most profound and dramatic thing one can do to one's own body, is also central to many of her poems.
7. Motherhood
     Motherhood is a major theme in Plath's work. She was profoundly ambivalent about this prescribed role of women, writing in "Metaphors" about how she felt insignificant as a pregnant woman, a mere "means" to an end. She lamented how grotesque she looked, and expressed her resignation over a perceived lack of options. However, in "Child", she delights in her child's perception of and engagement with the world. Of course, "Child" ends with the suggestions that she knows her child will someday see the harsh reality of life. Plath did not want her children to be contaminated by her own despair. This fear may also have manifested itself in her last poem, "Edge". Overall, Plath loved her children, but was not completely content in either pregnancy or motherhood.
8. Sexuality
     The whole concept of sex to Plath appears to be very disturbed and resentful one. This is conveyed strongly through the poem "Maudlin" in which Plath evokes her bitterness towards masculinity with the aid of two characters, the Virgin and Jack. Another poem which is strongly sexually oriented, but in a more mechanical and lustful sense, is "Night Shift". The brute physicality conveyed through onomatopoeia in the poem impregnated the feeling of primeval sexuality in which violence is interlaced. In short, Plath's poetry depicts sexuality as a central tool in the perpetuation of male dominance and female submission, a fact that makes the relations between man and women even more difficult.
9. Love
    Love has been a major theme in poetry for generation together and a woman plays a major role in the game of love. All the poems written by Sylvia Plath, including the posthumous collection, "Ariel" can be grouped under love poems. She is in love with nature, in love with sea, in love with her dead-father or in love with death itself. The normal erotic love, which she ought to have experienced as a young girl does not make an impression on her as poetic themes. She was utterly disillusioned with the concept and as a result love in the normal sense of the term is conspicuously absent in her poetry.
Love is a shadow,
How you lie and cry after it
Listen: these are its hooves: it has gone off, like a horse.(Elm)

QUESTION NO. 10

Critical Appreciation of "Still, Citizen Sparrow"
COMING SOON!

QUESTION NO. 15

Critical Appreciation of "Melodic Train"
COMING SOON!

QUESTION NO. 19

Character Sketch of Electra
COMING SOON!

QUESTION NO. 24

Theme of Individual and Society in "The Crucible"
COMING SOON!

QUESTION NO. 28

Character Sketch of Abigail
COMING SOON!

QUESTION NO. 32

Robert Jordan As a Tragic Hero
COMING SOON!

QUESTION NO. 36

Symbolic Significance of the Title "Jazz"
COMING SOON!

QUESTION NO. 40

City As a Character in "Jazz" 
COMING SOON!

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